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Контрольная работа по дисциплине «Языки»

Вид работы: Контрольная работа
Тема: Языки

Задание 1
Переведите на русский язык следующие термины и выражения:
abacus, occurrence, to possess, worship, tribal, welfare, to evolve, solstice, edifice, precursor, to depict, establishment, redundant, hexagon

Ответьте на вопросы по-английски:
What counting mechanisms were used in the shamanistic tradition?
When was the Stonehenge erected?
Why did the Chinese need an abacus?
What determined the value of each pebble?
Why relatively few beads were required to depict large numbers?
Why did the Greeks often use several mathematicians to work on the same problem?
What modern devices still use the basic principle of the Pascal’s calculator?
What were the disadvantages of his calculator?
What were other Pascal’s inventions?

Переведите на русский язык:
In order to correctly hold the ceremonies to ensure good harvest in the fall and fertility in the spring, the shamans needed to be able to count the days or to track the seasons.
Stonehenge, which lies 13km north of Salisbury, England, is believed to have been an ancient form of calendar designed to capture the light from the summer solstice in a specific fashion.
The abacus is the first true precursor to the adding machines and computers which would follow.
It could take weeks or months of labourious work by hand to verify the correctness of a proposed theorem.
The gear train supplied a mechanical answer equal to the answer that is obtained by using arithmetic.
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) had a rather unorthodox childhood. Already the young Pascal was on equal footing with some of the great scientific minds of his day.
As a result of his forays into the realm of spirituality, he wrote many religious works.
Finally, his last work was on the cycloid, the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a rolling circle.

Задание 2
Переведите на русский язык следующие термины и выражения.
decimal, to execute, punched card, binary, to solve complex engineering equations, binary system, electric circuit, vacuum tube, subroutine, random access memory (RAM), hardware, datа, computation, tabulator, multiplication, digital

Переведите на русский язык.
It was also the first machine to work on the binary system, as opposed to the more familiar decimal system.
It was slow, requiring 3 to 5 seconds for a multiplication, but it was fully automatic and could complete long computations without human intervention.
The Turing machine was designed to perform logical operations and could read, write, or erase symbols written on squares of an infinite paper tape.
Turing’s purpose was not to invent a computer, but rather to describe problems which are logically possible to solve.
ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955.
Typically, these computers were programmed directly in machine language, although by the mid-1950s progress had been made in several aspects of programming.

Задание 3
Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и словосочетания.
1. operating system
2. integrated circuit
3. workstation
4. spreadsheet application
5. word processor
6. graphical user interface

Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.
1. What were the advantages of transistors compared to vacuum tubes? – Vacuum tubes were highly inefficient, required a great deal of space, and needed to be replaced often. Transistors didn’t have any of these problems.
2. What was the name of the first computer with the graphical user interface? – The first generation Macintosh was the first computer to come with a graphical user interface.
3. What does the term HTML stand for? – The term HTML stands for hypertext markup language.
4. What operating systems were mentioned in the text? – Such operating systems as Apache for UNIX, Microsoft Information Interchange Server (IIS) for Windows/NT, and WebStar for the Macintosh were mentioned in the text.
5. What company produced the first microprocessor? – The first microprocessor was produced by Intel.

Какими вы представляете себе компьютеры будущего? Подумайте и изложите свои идеи в небольшом эссе (около 15 предложений).

Задание 4
Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.
1. What are the advantages of ergonomic keyboards?
2. What additional keys do they have compared to the typewriters?
3. What are the keyboards used for?
4. What is the typical number of keys on a keyboard?
5. What companies contributed to the development of the keyboard and the mouse?
6. What is the difference between normal keyboards and ergonomic ones? – They have difference in design. Ergonomic keyboards are specifically designed to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetitive strain injuries associated with typing for long periods of time.
7. When was the mouse invented? – The mouse was invented in 1963.
8. What company produced the first cordless mouse? – Logitech produced the first cordless mouse.

Переведите на русский язык.
1. Word processing, of course, relies on perhaps the most basic computer input device: the keyboard.
2. Laptops might also have vendor specific keys included in the keyboard.
3. Increasingly, keyboard firmware is becoming more complex as manufacturers make their keyboards more sophisticated.
4. Most programmable functions are executed through a driver running on the PC.
5. Though ergonomically designed keyboards had existed before, prior to the introduction of the Microsoft Natural Keyboard, such devices were neither widely available nor reasonably priced.
6. Microsoft’s original design has subsequently been refined, including the introduction of a row of customisable buttons above the function keys for launching applications or controlling play of music.
7. Microsoft’s first PC-specific mouse, designed for use with the company’s word processing application, appeared in 1982.
8. Serial mice use voltages of 12V and an asynchronous protocol from Microsoft comprised of three bytes per packet to report x and y movement plus button presses.

1. Нажмите пробел дважды.
2. Подключите эту мышку к компьютеру.
3. Клавиатуры и мышки являются самыми распространенными устройствами ввода информации.
4. Наведите указатель мышки на иконку.
5. Какие типы мышек вы знаете?
6. Необходимо нажать на правую кнопку мышки.
7. Какая раскладка у вашей клавиатуры?
8. У твоей новой мышки есть колесо прокрутки?

Задание 5
Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.
What are the advantages of optical mice compared to the mechanical ones?
What technologies can be used to connect cordless devices to the computer?
What makes 27 MHz frequency superior to the 900 MHz one?
What power sources are used by cordless devices?
What technology provides the best mouse sensitivity at the moment?

Переведите на русский язык.
1. As computing power grew cheaper, it became possible to embed more powerful special-purpose image processing chips in the mouse.
2. This advance enabled the mouse to detect relative motion on a wide variety of surfaces, translating the movement of the mouse into the movement of the pointer, eliminating the need for a special mouse pad.
3. The mouse communicates with the receiver on the 27.045 MHz band whereas the keyboard works on the 27.145 MHz.
4. Since an optical sensor consumes a significant amount of power in addition to the cordless technology itself, power consumption is a particular issue for cordless optical mice.

Опишите мышку и клавиатуру, которыми вы пользуетесь или пользовались (тип, число клавиш, раскладка, марка, интерфейс, удобство работы и т.п.; около 12 предложений).

Задание 6
#2.What does this abbreviation mean?

#3. Напишите ответы на вопросы на английском языке:
1.What company did introduce the laser printer in 1984?
2.Why did laser printers become popular very quickly?
3.What is inside the heart of the laser printer?
4.Why laser printers are better than inkjet technology?
5.What is the laser toner?
6.Why laser toner does contain the wax?
7.What is the difference between physical cleaning and electrical cleaning?
8.What is the principal disadvantage of LED technology?
9.What is the difference between laser printing and LED technology?
10.What combination of colors is used to produce the different printable colors in laser printing?
11.What is a native resolution for most modern laser printers?
12.What is the main advantage of color lasers?

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Задание 7
#2.Mark the following statements as True or False:
1.Hewlett-Packard (HP) claims to have invented the “bubble jet” technology. Canon claims to have invented what it terms «bubble jet» technology.
2.Inkjet printers are less expensive to maintain than laser printers. Inkjet printers are more expensive to maintain than laser printers.
3.Inkjet printing, like laser printing, is a non-impact method.
4.The most common type of inkjet technology is “drop on duim”?demand? (DOD).
5.On ordinary inkjets, the print head takes about a second to print a strip across a page. – False. On ordinary inkjets, the print head takes about half a second to print a strip across a page.
6.Most inkjets use thermal technology.
7. Thermal technology method is a favored by Canon and Hewlett-Packard.
8.Thermal technology uses the type of ink that is heat resistant.
9.Today’s thermal inkjets have print heads containing between 300 and 700 nozzles in total. Today’s thermal inkjets have print heads containing between 300 and 600 nozzles in total.
10. Epson’s proprietary inkjet technology uses a piezo crystal at the front of the ink reservoir. Epson’s proprietary inkjet technology uses a piezo crystal at the back of the ink reservoir.

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